One of the oldest art forms is an Amazing architecture which is expressed via skilled construction by a human. Humans have proved their powerful and strong existence through this wonderful structure from little shelters to enormous structures. From world’s one corner to another, there is no such place on the face of the earth which is left without its supremacy’s marks out of all living things. Buildings are such structures which are created by humans, and they serve their purpose as living places, religious temples, educational institutes or monuments. As the time passes by, men are becoming more and more expert in this specific area; now we can see huge structures touching the heights of sky. Some of the century-old and ancient buildings are still to be found because of the great idea, efforts, and material invested in their construction. Now those old buildings are preserved as a valuable asset of our ancestors. This information will take you back in ancient eras, where you will see the reflection of human potential about the huge and wonderful architecture that they had created. The most ancient and oldest building of the world is known to be the Tumulus of Bougon; it consists of 5 barrows of Neolithic which are located in Bougon, France. The place was excavated and discovered back in 1840, and it caught the interest of different scientists. The structures were basically originated in the prehistoric era of 4800 BC, which makes it most historic building in the history of humankind. In entire Western Europe, this site is the most preserved one and also the largest one. In Second World War, its most part was served as the underground bunkers and lookout points. The building is almost 12.2 meter in height and around 18.6 meters long.
Millions of years ago, earth’s atmosphere consisted of around 97% carbon dioxide, a small amount of nitrogen and trace amounts of oxygen and other gases. This means that more complex multicellular organisms who are obligate aerobes, thus rely on oxygen to carry out aerobic respiration and produce ATP (via chemiosmosis in the Krebs cycle) for energy, could not have existed. Of course, organisms would need to have evolved to the point of having mitochondria in their cells to facilitate aerobic respiration. More complex organisms, particularly larger mammals, would also require a closed circulatory system (with blood contained in vessels: arteries, veines, arterioles, venules, and capillaries) to rapidly transport oxygen and nutrients to cells that require it. This is because these organisms have a smaller surface area:volume ratio, so a closed circulation helps them overcome the limitations of diffusion amd maintain a higher metabolism. Of course enough oxygen and nutrients would need to be available in the environment to facilitate the growth of these organisms and the evolution of these structures. However, some more simple prokaryotic unicellular organisms, such as bacteria, would have thrived on these early conditions, as many bacteria are not obligate aerobes. Bacterial cells have no nucleus and they have circular genetic material/DNA arranged in small loops called plasmids and in a loop of chromosomal DNA, to control protein synthesis within the cell. They also have a cytoplasm, which is where all the chemical reactions occur in the cell. The cytoplasm consists of the cystosol (the aqueous component) and the organelles that are dissolved in the cytosol, thus it provides a medium for the organelles of the cell. Bacterial cells contain small 70s ribosomes to facilitate protein synthesis, but do not have other membrane bound organelles such as the rough endoplasmic reticulum or the golgi apparatus. They also lack an internal cytoskeleton and mitochondria. Bacterial cells also have a cell wall (although it is made of a different polysaccharide called peptidoglycan) to protect the cell. Bacteria have a flagellum (which allows motility), pili (which allow them to stick/adhere to surfaces, allowing them to stick to other cells) and a capsule (a polysaccharide layer surrounding the cell wall) to prevent dehydration. They also have a cell membrane on the inside of the cell wall, consisting of a phospholipid bilayer, that regulates what substances enter and leave the cell via passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, or active transport.